Field Artillery in the Civil War: 1861-1865

 

 

"As soon as they made their appearance from the woods, our artillery opened on them with terrible effect. The air over their heads was filled with the smoke of bursting shells whose fragments plowed the ground..."

 

Charles A. Phillips, 5th Massachusetts Light Artillery Battle of Malvern Hill, 1 July 1862

 

 

Background Reading

eBooks & Chapters

 

• Birkhimer, William Edward. (1884). Organization-Field Service. Historical Sketch of the Organization, Administration, Material and Tactics of the Artillery, United States Army, (pp. 84-103). Washington DC: James J. Chapman.

 

• Dastrup, Boyd L. (1992). Field Artillery in the Civil War: 1861-1865. King of Battle: A Branch History of the U.S. Army's Field Artillery (pp. 89-122). Virginia: United States Army Training and Doctrine Command.

 

• McKeney, Janice E. (2007). The Civil War. The Organizational History of Field Artillery 1775-2003, (pp. 47-73). Washington DC: Center of Military History.

 

• U.S. Army Field Artillery School. (1984). Civil War. Right of the Line: A History of the American Field Artillery. Fort Sill: U.S. Army Field Artillery School.

 

Artillery

Articles

 

• Morelock, Jerry D. (1986). Wait for the Wagon!: Combat Service Support for the Civil War Battery. Field Artillery Journal, 54, 2, 14-19.

 

Student Papers

 

• Daniels, William Jeffrey. (2008). The Confederate King of Battle: A Comparison of the Field Artillery Corps of The Army of Northern Virginia and The Army of Tennessee. Kansas: U.S. Army Command & General Staff College.

 

• Dunfield. (1970). Swamp Angel. Fort Sill: U.S. Field Artillery School.

 

• Wilson, Jerre W. (1993). The Evolution of Field Artillery Organization and Employment During the American Civil War. Newport: U.S. Army War College

 

Primary Sources

 

• Abbot, Henry L. (1867). Siege Artillery in the Campaigns Against Richmond, with Notes on the 15-Inch Gun. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office.

 

• Anderson, Robert. (1860). Evolutions of Field Batteries of Artillery: Translated from the French and Arranged for the Army and Militia of the United States. NY: D. Van Nostrand.

 

• Barnard, John Gross & Barry, William Farquhar. (1863). Report of the Engineer and Artillery Operations of the Army of the Potomac: From Its Organization to the Close of the Peninsular Campaign. NY: D. Van Nostrand.

 

• French, William Henry, Barry, William Farquhar, and Hunt, Henry Jackson. (1864). The 1864 Field Artillery Tactics. Washington D.C.: U.S. War Department.

 

• French, Wm. H. (1864). Instruction for Field Artillery: The Evolutions of Batteries. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O.

UF160 .A5 1864 RARE.

 

• Gibbon, John. (1860). The Artillerist's Manual. NY: D. Van Nostrand.

 

• Mordecai, Alfred. (1860). Military Commission to Europe in 1855 and 1856. Washington: George W. Bowman, Printer.

 

• U.S. Army Ordnance Department. (1849). Artillery for the United States Land Service. Washington DC: J. and G.S. Gideon.

 

• U.S. War Department. (1880-1901). The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington: Government Printing Office.

 

Artillerists

Articles

 

• Leese, Douglas G. (1997). Lieutenant Colonel John Pelham: The Extraordinary Artillerist. Field Artillery Journal, 65, 5, 30-33.

 

• Stegmaier, Robert M. (1979). Dilger-Artilleryman of Note. Field Artillery Journal, 47, 58-59.

 

• Stegmaier, Robert M. (1980). Pelham-Gallant Artilleryman. Field Artillery Journal, 48, 2, 50-52.

 

• Trussell Jr., J.B.B. (1949). Pelham-Gallant Gunner. Field Artillery Journal, 39, 2, 59-63.

 

• Volk, Karl W. (1978). Redlegs in Blue and Gray. Field Artillery Journal, 46, 1, 34-37.

 

• Jordan, Jonathan W. (2006). E.P. Alexander Distinguished Himself as a Confederate Artillery Officer and Aeronaut. Military History, 22, 10

 

Printed Sources

 

• Hassler, William W. (1960). Colonel John Pelham : Lee's Boy Artillerist. Richmond: Garrett & Massie.

 

• Longacre, Edward G. (1977). The Man Behind the Guns: A Biography of General Henry Jackson Hunt, Chief of Artillery, Army of the Potomac. NJ: A.S. Barnes.

 

• Mercer, Philip. (1929). The Life of the Gallant Pelham. Macon: The J.W. Burke Company.

 

 

 

After realizing from their shared experience of the futility of employing Mexican War field artillery tactics and organization in an era of rifled muskets and large armies, Union and Confederate armies adopted new tactics and organizations. They moved their field pieces behind the infantry line, established chiefs of artillery, created artillery reserves, and centralized command of their artillery to facilitate massing fire.

 

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Alexander, E.P. (1907). Military Memoirs of a Confederate. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.

 

Call Number: E545 .A54

Bell, Jack. (2003). Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance: A Guide to Large Artillery Projectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines. TX: University of North Texas Press.

 

Call Number: UF753 .B44 2003

Daniel, Larry J. (1984). Cannoneers in Gray: The Field Artillery of the Army of Tennessee, 1861-1865. Alabama: University of Alabama Press.

 

Call Number: E579.4 .D36 1984

Dean, Thomas S. (1985). Cannons: An Introduction to Civil War Artillery. PA: Thomas Publications.

 

Call Number: UF23 .T45 1985

Hazlett, James C. (1988). Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, 2nd Ed. Newark: University of Delaware Press.

 

Call Number: UF443 .H39 1988

Katcher, Philip. (2001). American Civil War Artillery: 1861-1865 (I) Field Artillery. Oxford: Osprey Military.

 

Call Number: UF443 .K19 2001 (1)

Katcher, Philip. (2001). American Civil War Artillery: 1861-1865 (II) Heavy Artillery. Oxford: Osprey Military.

 

Call Number: UF443 .K19 2001 (2)

Kerksis, Sydney C. & Dickey, Thomas S. (1972). Heavy Artillery Projectiles of the Civil War, 1861-1865. GA: Phoenix Press.

 

Call Number: UF753 .K42

Langellier, John P. (1998). Redlegs: The U.S. Artillery from the Civil War to the Spanish-American War, 1861-1898. PA: Stackpole Books.

 

Call Number: UF23 .L36 1998

Langellier, John P. (2000). Terrible Swift Sword: Union Artillery, Cavalry, and Infantry, 1861-1865. PA: Stackpole Books.

 

Call Number: E491 .L36 2000

McWhiney, Grady. (1982). Attack and Die: Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage. Alabama: University of Alabama Press.

 

Call Number: E545 .M38

Naisawald, L. VanLoan. (2004). Cannon Blasts: Civil War Artillery in the Eastern Armies. PA: White Mane.

 

Call Number: E470 .N35 2004

Tidball, John C. (2011). The Artillery Service in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-65. Ed. Lawrence M. Kaplan. PA: Westholme.

 

Call Number: E492.6 .T51 2011

Wise, Jennings C. (1959). The Long Arm of Lee: The History of the Artillery of the Army of Northern Virginia. NY: Oxford University Press.

 

Call Number: E545.6 .W5 1959

Longacre, Edward G. (1977). The Man Behind the Guns: A Biography of General Henry Jackson Hunt, Chief of Artillery, Army of the Potomac. NJ: A.S. Barnes.

 

Call Number: E467.1 .H89 L66 2003

 

 

 

Guns of the Civil War

 

 

M1863 3-inch Parrott Rifle

 

 

 

British Blakely 2.9-inch Mountain Rifle

Courtesy of the U.S. Field Artillery Museum

 

 

 

Model 1862 30-pdr. Parrott Rifle

Courtesy of the U.S. Field Artillery Museum

 

 

 

M1857 12-pdr. Gun Howitzer, "Napoleon"

Courtesy of the U.S. Field Artillery Museum

 

 

 

Confederate 12-pdr. Gun-Howitzer, "Iron Napoleon"

Courtesy of the U.S. Field Artillery Museum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Battles

Bull Run/First Manassas

eBooks & Chapters

 

• Murray, Jennifer M. (2012). Into Virginia-Bull Run. The Civil War Begins: Opening Clashes, 1861, pp.19-43. Washington DC: Center of Military HIstory.

 

Articles

 

• Schreckengost, Gary J. (2001). "The Fatal Blunder of the Day": The Artillery Fight at the First Battle of Bull Run. Field Artillery Journal, 22-28.

 

Shiloh

Articles

 

• Hall, Thomas K. (1999). Confederate Redlegs at Shiloh: Swatting the Hornet's Nest. Field Artillery Bulletin, PB6-99.

 

Malvern Hill

Articles

 

• Greer, Allen J. (1936). The Roaring Guns from the Seven Days to Cold Harbor. Field Artillery Journal, 26, 1, 5-26.

 

Antietam/Sharpsburg

Articles

 

• Mrozek Jr., Albert A. (1992). The Battle of Antietam: The Creation of Artillery Hell. Field Artillery Journal, 30-34.

 

Printed Sources

 

• Johnson, Curt. (1995). Artillery Hell: The Employment of Artillery at Antietam. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

E474.65 .J64 1995

 

Chancellorsville

Articles

 

• Means, Dale E. (1937). The Chancellorsville Campaign as an "Active Defense". Fort Sill: U.S. Field Artillery School.

 

• Schreckengost, G. James. (2002). A Contest of Contrasts: The Principle of Dislocation and the Artillery Fight at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Field Artillery Journal, 43-47.

 

Gettysbrg

Articles

• Hayes, Brian C. (2003). Three Men of Gettysburg: A Study in Civil War Battery Command. Field Artillery Journal, 18-20.

 

• Wise, Jennings C. (1923). The Artillery Mechanics of Gettysburg. Field Artillery Journal, 493-501.

 

Student Papers

 

• Clarke, Wm. (1919). The Campaign of Gettysburg. Oklahoma: U.S. Army Field Artillery School.

 

• Gilmore, Mark R. (1989). Artillery Employment at the Battle of Gettysburg. Kansas: U.S. Army Command & General Staff College.

 

• Herihly, Edward G. (1931). Study of the Union Artillery at the Battle of Gettysburg, 1-3 July 1863. Ft. Leavenworth: The Command and General Staff School.

 

• Lee, William E. (1930). Was the Confederate Artillery Effective at Gettysburg?. Ft. Leavenworth: The Command and General Staff School.

 

Printed Sources

 

• Brown, Kent Masterson. (1993). Cushing of Gettysburg: The Story of a Union Artillery Commander. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

E475.53 .B85 1993

 

• Coco, Gregory A. (1998). A Concise Guide to the Artillery at Gettysburg. PA: Thomas Publications.

E475.53 .C622

 

• Cole, Philip M. (2002). Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg: Organization, Equipment, Ammunition and Tactics. Cambridge: Da Capo Press.

E475.53 .C65 2002

 

• Downey, Fairfax Davis. (1958). The Guns at Gettysburg. NY: D. McKay.

E475.53 .D75

 

• Gottfried, Bradley M. (2008). The Artillery of Gettysburg. Nashville: Cumberland House.

E475.53 .G66 2008

 

• Newton, George W. (2005). Silent Sentinels: A Reference Guide to the Artillery at Gettysburg. NY: Savas Beatie.

E475.56 .N6 2005

 

• Spruill, Matt. (2010). Summer Thunder: A Battlefield Guide to the Artillery at Gettysburg. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

E475.53 .S77 2010

 

Chickamauga

Articles

 

• Govekar, Christopher P. (1995). Fire Support at the Battle of Chickamauga. Field Artillery Journal, 42-44.

 

Student Papers

 

• Mammay, Michael J. (2001). Union Artillery at the Battle of Chickamauga. Kansas: U.S. Army Command & General Staff College.

 

Spotsylvania

Articles

 

• Whatley, John C. (1985). Artillery Well Handled. Field Artillery Journal, 53, 3, 52-53.