Field Artillery in the Civil War: 1861-1865

 

 

"As soon as they made their appearance from the woods, our artillery opened on them with terrible effect.  The air over their heads was filled with the smoke of bursting shells whose fragments plowed the ground..."

 

Charles A. Phillips, 5th Massachusetts Light Artillery Battle of Malvern Hill, 1 July 1862

 

 

Background Reading

Ebooks/Chapters

 

• Birkhimer, William Edward. (1884). Organization-Field Service. Historical Sketch of the Organization, Administration, Material and Tactics of the Artillery, United States Army, (pp. 84-103). Washington DC: James J. Chapman.

 

• Dastrup, Boyd L. (1992). Field Artillery in the Civil War: 1861-1865. King of Battle: A Branch History of the U.S. Army's Field Artillery (pp. 89-122). Virginia: United States Army Training and Doctrine Command.

 

• McKeney, Janice E. (2007). The Civil War. The Organizational History of Field Artillery 1775-2003, (pp. 47-73). Washington DC: Center of Military History.

 

• The Century War Series staff. (1887). Battles & Leaders of the Civil War. NY: The Century Co.

 

• U.S. Army Field Artillery School. (1984). Civil War. Right of the Line: A History of the American Field Artillery. Fort Sill: U.S. Army Field Artillery School.

 

Online Sources

 

The Civil War Sesquicentennial [www.history.army.mil]

 

Civil War Trust - Saving America's Civil War Battlefields [www.civilwar.org]

 

Home of the American Civil War [www.civilwarhome.com]

 

Artillery

Articles

 

• Alexander, E.P. (1866). Confederate Artillery Service. Southern Historical Society Papers, Vol. 11, 98-113.

 

• Cotner, James R. (1996). America's Civil War: Horses and Field Artillery. America's Civil War Magazine.

 

• Cotner, James R. (1996). Horsepower Moves the Guns. HistoryNet.com

 

• Crookshanks, Ben. (1996). Sergeant Milton Humphreys Concept of Indirect Fire. America's Civil War Magazine.

 

• Morelock, Jerry D. (1986). Wait for the Wagon!: Combat Service Support for the Civil War Battery. Field Artillery Journal, 54, 2, 14-19.

 

• Morgan, Jim. (1990). "Mounted But Not Mounted", The Confusing Terminology of Artillery. Camp Chase Gazette.

 

• Morgan, Jim. (1996). "Green Ones and Black Ones", The Most Common Field Pieces of the Civil War. Camp Chase Gazette, 23, 7.

 

• America's Civil War. (2010). Bring Out the Big Guns. America's Civil War, 23, 5.

 

• Civil War Times. (2005). Boom with a View. Civil War Times, 44,5.

 

• E.J.H. (2009). Mortars Big and Small. Civil War Times, 48, 5.

 

• McCaul, Ed. (1997). The Civil War Saw Rapid Technological Advances in Artillery Projectiles and their Accompanying. America's Civil War, 10, 1.

 

• Houting, Scott P. (2002). The 3-inch Ordnance Rifle Developed by John Griffen Became the Civil War's Most Reliable. America's Civil War, 14, 6.

 

• Swain, Craig. (2011). Yankee Super Gun. Civil War Times, 50, 4.

 

Student Papers

 

• Daniels, William Jeffrey. (2008). The Confederate King of Battle: A Comparison of the Field Artillery Corps of The Army of Northern Virginia and The Army of Tennessee. Kansas: U.S. Army Command & General Staff College.

 

• Dunfield. (1970). Swamp Angel. Fort Sill: U.S. Field Artillery School.

 

• Wilson, Jerre W. (1993). The Evolution of Field Artillery Organization and Employment During the American Civil War. Newport: U.S. Army War College

 

Online Sources

 

Civil War Artillery Projectiles [www.civilwarartillery.com]

 

Field Artillery in the Civil War [www.cwartillery.com]

 

Introduction to Civil War Artillery [http://ehistory.osu.edu]

 

Rodman's Great Guns [www.civilwarartillery.com]

 

Primary Sources

 

• Abbot, Henry L. (1867). Siege Artillery in the Campaigns Against Richmond, with Notes on the 15-Inch Gun. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office.

 

• Anderson, Robert. (1860). Evolutions of Field Batteries of Artillery: Translated from the French and Arranged for the Army and Militia of the United States. NY: D. Van Nostrand.

 

• Barnard, John Gross & Barry, William Farquhar. (1863). Report of the Engineer and Artillery Operations of the Army of the Potomac: From Its Organization to the Close of the Peninsular Campaign. NY: D. Van Nostrand.

 

• Confederate States of America, War Department. (1863). The Ordnance Manual for the use of the Officers of the Confederate States Army. Charleston: Evans & Cogswell.

 

• French, William Henry, Barry, William Farquhar, and Hunt, Henry Jackson. (1864). The 1864 Field Artillery Tactics. Washington D.C.: U.S. War Department.

 

• Gibbon, John. (1860). The Artillerist's Manual. NY: D. Van Nostrand.

 

• Hunt, O.E. (2005). The Ordnance Department of the Federal Army. NY: Review of Reviews Co.

 

• Mordecai, Alfred. (1860). Military Commission to Europe in 1855 and 1856. Washington: George W. Bowman, Printer.

 

• Mallet, J.W. & Hunt, O.E. (2005). The Ordnance of the Confederacy. NY: Review of Reviews Co.

 

• Patten, George. (1863). Artillery Drill: Containing Instruction in the School of the Piece and Battery Moves. NY: J.W. Fortune.

 

• Roberts, Joseph. (2010). The Handbook of Artillery for the Service of the United States, Army and Militi. MT: Kessinger Publishing, LLC.

 

• U.S. Army Ordnance Department. (1849). Artillery for the United States Land Service. Washington DC: J. and G.S. Gideon.

 

• U.S. Army Ordnance Department. (1862). The Ordnance Manual for the use of the Officers of the United States Army. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co.

 

• U.S. War Department. (1845). Instruction for Field Artillery, Horse and Foot. Baltimore: Joseph Robinson.

 

• U.S. War Department. (1861). Instruction for Heavy Artillery: Prepared by a Board of Officers, for the use of the Army of the United States. Charleston: Presses of Evans & Cogswell.

 

• U.S. War Department. (1863). Revised United States Army Regulations of 1861. Washington: Government Printing Office.

 

• U.S. War Department. (1880-1901). The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington: Government Printing Office.

 

Artillerists

Articles

 

• Leese, Douglas G. (1997). Lieutenant Colonel John Pelham: The Extraordinary Artillerist. Field Artillery Journal, 65, 5, 30-33.

 

• Stegmaier, Robert M. (1979). Dilger-Artilleryman of Note. Field Artillery Journal, 47, 58-59.

 

• Stegmaier, Robert M. (1980). Pelham-Gallant Artilleryman. Field Artillery Journal, 48, 2, 50-52.

 

• Trussell Jr., J.B.B. (1949). Pelham-Gallant Gunner. Field Artillery Journal, 39, 2, 59-63.

 

• Volk, Karl W. (1978). Redlegs in Blue and Gray. Field Artillery Journal, 46, 1, 34-37.

 

• Carmichael, Peter S. (2004). The Classics: A General Struggles to Reconcile War with Christianity. Memoirs of William Nelson Pendleton, D.D. Civil War Times, 43, 1.

 

• Jordan, Jonathan W. (2006). E.P. Alexander Distinguished Himself as a Confederate Artillery Officer and Aeronaut. Military History, 22, 10

 

Printed Sources

 

• Hassler, William W. (1960). Colonel John Pelham : Lee's Boy Artillerist. Richmond: Garrett & Massie.

 

• Longacre, Edward G. (1977). The Man Behind the Guns: A Biography of General Henry Jackson Hunt, Chief of Artillery, Army of the Potomac. NJ: A.S. Barnes.

 

• McWhiney, Grady. (1969). Braxton Bragg and Confederate Defeat. NY: Columbia University Press.

 

• Mercer, Philip. (1929). The Life of the Gallant Pelham. Macon: The J.W. Burke Company.

 

• Seitz, Don Carlos. (1924). Braxton Bragg, General of the Confederacy. Columbia S.C.: The State Company.

 

 

 

After realizing from their shared experience of the futility of employing Mexican War field artillery tactics and organization in an era of rifled muskets and large armies, Union and Confederate armies adopted new tactics and organizations. They moved their field pieces behind the infantry line, established chiefs of artillery, created artillery reserves, and centralized command of their artillery to facilitate massing fire.

 

Select Bibliography

Alexander, E.P. (1907). Military Memoirs of a Confederate. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.

 

Call Number: E545 .A54

Bell, Jack. (2003). Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance: A Guide to Large Artillery Projectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines. TX: University of North Texas Press.

 

Call Number: UF753 .B44 2003

Brown, Thaddeus C. (2000). Behind the Guns: The History of Battery I, 2nd Regiment, Illinois Light Artillery. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press.

 

Call Number: E505.8 2ND .B76 2000

Daniel, Larry J. (1984). Cannoneers in Gray: The Field Artillery of the Army of Tennessee, 1861-1865. Alabama: University of Alabama Press.

 

Call Number: E579.4 .D36 1984

Dean, Thomas S. (1985). Cannons: An Introduction to Civil War Artillery. PA: Thomas Publications.

 

Call Number: UF23 .T45 1985

Hazlett, James C. (1988). Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, 2nd Ed. Newark: University of Delaware Press.

 

Call Number: UF443 .H39 1988

Huger, Frank. (2011). Col. Frank Huger, C.S.A.: The Civil War Letters of a Confederate Artillery Officer. N.C.: McFarland & Co.

 

Call Number: E605 .H888 2011

Hughes, Nathaniel Cheairs. (1997). The Pride of the Confederate Army: The Washington Artillery in the Army of Tennessee. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

 

Call Number: E565.7 .W2 H84 1997

Jones, Charles H. (2001). Artillery Fuses of the Civil War. VA: O'Donnell Publications.

 

Call Number: UF780 .J66 2001 FSRC

Katcher, Philip. (2001). American Civil War Artillery: 1861-1865 (I) Field Artillery. Oxford: Osprey Military.

 

Call Number: UF443 .K19 2001 (1)

Katcher, Philip. (2001). American Civil War Artillery: 1861-1865 (II) Heavy Artillery. Oxford: Osprey Military.

 

Call Number: UF443 .K19 2001 (2)

Kerksis, Sydney C. & Dickey, Thomas S. (1972). Heavy Artillery Projectiles of the Civil War, 1861-1865. GA: Phoenix Press.

 

Call Number: UF753 .K42

Laboda, Lawrence R. (1994). From Selma to Appomattox: The History of the Jeff Davis Artillery. PA: White Mane Pub.

 

Call Number: E547 .J4 L33 1994

Lampley, Dennis J. (2007). Captain Ed Baxter & His Tennessee Artillerymen, C.S.A. Nashville: Westview Book Publishing.

 

Call Number: E579.8.B39 L36 2007

Langellier, John P. (1998). Redlegs: The U.S. Artillery from the Civil War to the Spanish-American War, 1861-1898. PA: Stackpole Books.

 

Call Number: UF23 .L36 1998

Langellier, John P. (2000). Terrible Swift Sword: Union Artillery, Cavalry, and Infantry, 1861-1865. PA: Stackpole Books.

 

Call Number: E491 .L36 2000

Manigault, Edward. (1996). Siege Train: The Journal of a Confederate Artilleryman in the Defense of Charleston. Charleston: University of South Carolina Press.

 

Call Number: E475.62 .M36 1996

McCaul, Edward B. (2010). The Mechanical Fuze and the Advance of Artillery in the Civil War. N.C.: McFarland & Co.

 

Call Number: E492.6 .M33 2010

McWhiney, Grady. (1982). Attack and Die: Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage. Alabama: University of Alabama Press.

 

Call Number: E545 .M38

Moore, Edward Alexander. (1910). The Story of a Cannoneer Under Stonewall Jackson. VA: J.P. Bell Company, Inc.

 

Call Number: E605 .M823

Morton, John Watson. (1909). Forrest's Artillery. Gaithersburg: Olde Soldier Books, Inc.

 

Call Number: E547 .M88

Naisawald, L. VanLoan. (2004). Cannon Blasts: Civil War Artillery in the Eastern Armies. PA: White Mane.

 

Call Number: E470 .N35 2004

Owen, William Miller. (1999). In Camp and Battle with the Washington Artillery of New Orleans. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

 

Call Number: E565.7 .W2 1999

Shultz, David. (1995). Double Canister at Ten Yards: The Federal Artillery and the Repulse of Pickett's Charge. California: Rank and File Publications.

 

Call Number: E475.53 .S58 1995

Speicher, James. (2009). The Sumter Flying Artillery: A Civil War History of the Eleventh Battalion Georgia Light Artillery. LA: Pelican.

 

Call Number: E559.8 11th .S64 2009

Tidball, John C. (2011). The Artillery Service in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-65. Ed. Lawrence M. Kaplan. PA: Westholme.

 

Call Number: E492.6 .T51 2011

Trout, Robert J. ed. (2008). Memoirs of the Stuart Horse Artillery Battalion. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

 

Call Number: E581.4 .S85 M46 2008

Wise, Jennings C. (1959). The Long Arm of Lee: The History of the Artillery of the Army of Northern Virginia. NY: Oxford University Press.

 

Call Number: E545.6 .W5 1959

 

 

 

E-book Bibliography

 

 

• Buell, Augustus. (1890). "The Cannoneer." Recollections of Service in the Army of the Potomac. Washington DC: The National Tribune.

 

 

• Miller, Francis Trevelyan. (1877-1959). The Photographic History of the Civil War, Volumes 1-10. NY: The Review of Reviews Co.

 

 

• Moore, Edward Alexander. (1910). The Story of a Cannoneer Under Stonewall Jackson. Virginia: J.P. Bell Company, Inc.

 

 

• Morton, John Watson. (1909). The Artillery of Nathan Bedford Forrest's Cavalry, "The Wizard of the Saddle". Nashville: Publishing House of the M.E. Church.

 

 

• Owen, William Miller. (1885). In Camp and Battle with the Washington Artillery of New Orleans. Boston: Ticknor and Company.

 

 

• Wise, Jennings C. (1881). The Long Arm of Lee, Volume 1 & Volume 2. Virginia: J.P. Bell Company, Inc.

 

 

Guns of the Civil War

 

 

M1863 3-inch Parrott Rifle

 

 

 

British Blakely 2.9-inch Mountain Rifle

Courtesy of the U.S. Field Artillery Museum

 

 

 

Model 1862 30-pdr. Parrott Rifle

Courtesy of the U.S. Field Artillery Museum

 

 

 

M1857 12-pdr. Gun Howitzer, "Napoleon"

Courtesy of the U.S. Field Artillery Museum

 

 

 

Confederate 12-pdr. Gun-Howitzer, "Iron Napoleon"

Courtesy of the U.S. Field Artillery Museum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Battles

Bull Run/First Manassas

Ebooks/Chapters

 

• Johnston, R.M. (1913). Bull Run: Its Strategy and Tactics. Boston: Riverside Press.

 

• Murray, Jennifer M. (2012). Into Virginia-Bull Run. The Civil War Begins: Opening Clashes, 1861, pp.19-43. Washington DC: Center of Military HIstory.

 

• Stedman, Edmund C. (1861). The Battle of Bull Run. NY: Rudd & Carleton.

 

• The Century War Series staff. (1887). The Campaign of the First Bull Run. Battles & Leaders of the Civil War, Volume I, pp.167-261. NY: The Century Co.

 

Articles

 

• Schreckengost, Gary J. (2001). "The Fatal Blunder of the Day": The Artillery Fight at the First Battle of Bull Run. Field Artillery Journal, 22-28.

 

Online Sources

 

The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) [www.civilwarhome.com]

 

Printed Sources

 

• Davis, William C. (1977). Battle at Bull Run: A History of the First Major Campaign of the Civil War. NY: Doubleday.

E472.18 .D29

 

• Detzer, David. (2005). Donnybrook: The Battle of Bull Run, 1861. NY: Mariner Books.

 

• Heller, Charles E. (Ed.) & Stofft, Willam A. (Ed.)(1986). First Battle of Bull Run, 19 July 1861. America's First Battles 1776-1965, pp. 81-108. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.

E181 .A46 1986

 

• Rafuse, Ethan Sepp. (2002). A Single Grand Victory: The First Campaign and Battle of Manassas. Wilmington: SR Books.

E472.18 .R34 2002

 

Shiloh

Ebooks/Chapters

 

• The Century War Series staff. (1887). Shiloh. Battles & Leaders of the Civil War, Volume I, pp.465-610. NY: The Century Co.

 

Articles

 

• Allen, Christopher. (2000). Battle of Shiloh: The Devil's Own Day. America's Civil War Magazine.

 

• Hall, Thomas K. (1999). Confederate Redlegs at Shiloh: Swatting the Hornet's Nest. Field Artillery Bulletin, PB6-99.

 

• Stephenson, Jon G.(1997). First Thunder at Shiloh. HistoryNet.com

 

Online Sources

 

The Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing) [www.civilwarhome.com]

 

Printed Sources

 

• McDonough, James L. (1977). Shiloh, in Hell Before Night. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

E473.54 .M22

 

• Woodworth, Steven E. (2009). The Shiloh Campaign. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

E473.54 .S575 2009

 

Malvern Hill

Ebooks/Chapters

 

• The Century War Series staff. (1887). The Seven Day's Fighting. Battles & Leaders of the Civil War, Volume II, pp.383-435. NY: The Century Co.

 

Articles

 

• Greer, Allen J. (1936). The Roaring Guns from the Seven Days to Cold Harbor. Field Artillery Journal, 26, 1, 5-26.

 

• Kendall, Drew J. (2002). 'Murder' at Malvern Hill. Military History, 19, 3.

 

Online Sources

 

July 1, 1862-Malvern Hill [www.vahistorical.org]

 

Malvern Hill - The Last of the Seven Days [www.militaryhistoryonline.com]

 

Robert E. Lee's Report on the Seven Days' Battles [www.civilwar.org]

 

Antietam/Sharpsburg

 

• The Century War Series staff. (1887). Lee's Invasion of Maryland. Battles & Leaders of the Civil War, Volume II, pp.630-695. NY: The Century Co.

 

Articles

 

• Cheeks, Robert C. (1998). Carnage in a Cornfield. America's Civil War Magazine.

 

• Mrozek Jr., Albert A. (1992). The Battle of Antietam: The Creation of Artillery Hell. Field Artillery Journal, 30-34.

 

• Sears, Stephen W. (2010). 'The Roar and Rattle': McClellan's Missed Opportunities at Antietam. HistoryNet.com.

 

Online Sources

 

Antietam on the Web [http://antietam.aotw.org]

 

Artillery at Antietam [www.nps.gov]

 

Artillery Hell: Colonel S.D. Lee and his Guns at Antietam [http://antietam.aotw.org]

 

Printed Sources

 

• Gallagher, Gary W. (1999). The Antietam Campaign. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

E474.65 .A59 1999

 

• Johnson, Curt. (1995). Artillery Hell: The Employment of Artillery at Antietam. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

E474.65 .J64 1995

 

• McPherson, James M. (2002). Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam. NY: Oxford University Press.

E474.65 .M48 2002

 

• Sears, Stephen W. (1983). Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam. New Haven: Ticknor & Fields.

E474.65 .S43

 

Chancellorsville

Articles

 

• Means, Dale E. (1937). The Chancellorsville Campaign as an "Active Defense". Fort Sill: U.S. Field Artillery School.

 

• Schreckengost, G. James. (2002). A Contest of Contrasts: The Principle of Dislocation and the Artillery Fight at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Field Artillery Journal, 43-47.

 

Online Sources

 

Battle of Chancellorsville-Part 1 [www.militaryhistoryonline.com]

 

The Battle of Chancellorsville [www.civilwarhome.com]

 

Printed Sources

 

• Sears, Stephen W. (1996). Chancellorsville. NY: Houghton-Mifflin Co.

E475.35 .S43 1996

 

• Stackpole, Edward J. (1958). Chancellorsville: Lee's Greatest Battle. NY: Stackpole Co.

E475.35 .S8

 

Vicksburg

Articles

 

• Morgan, Michael. (2003). America's Civil War: Digging to Victory at Vicksburg. America's Civil War Magazine.

 

Student Papers

 

• Harbeson, Jeffrey. (1994). The Vicksburg Campaign-Command and Control of a Successful Joint Operation. Newport: Naval War College.

 

Online Sources

 

Battle of Vicksburg [www.historynet.com]

 

The Siege of Vicksburg [www.civilwarhome.com]

 

Printed Sources

 

• Bearss, Edwin C. (1985). The Campaign of Vicksburg. Ohio: Morningside.

E475.27 .B42 1985 V.1

 

• Bearss, Edwin C. (2010). Receding Tide: Vicksburg and Gettysburg: The Campaigns that Changed the Civil War. Washington DC: National Geographical Society.

E475.27 .B424 2010

 

• Shea, William L. (2003). Vicksburg is the Key: The Struggle for the Mississippi River. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

 

Gettysbrg

Articles

 

• Barnett, Bert. (2005). "The Batteries Fired With Very Decided Effect": Confederate Artillery Operations on the First Day at Gettysburg. This Has Been a Terrible Ordeal: The Gettysburg Campaign and First Day of Battle (pp. 197-216). Washington DC: National Park Service.

 

• Hayes, Brian C. (2003). Three Men of Gettysburg: A Study in Civil War Battery Command. Field Artillery Journal, 18-20.

 

• Wise, Jennings C. (1923). The Artillery Mechanics of Gettysburg. Field Artillery Journal, 493-501.

 

Student Papers

 

• Clarke, Wm. (1919). The Campaign of Gettysburg. Oklahoma: U.S. Army Field Artillery School.

 

• Gilmore, Mark R. (1989). Artillery Employment at the Battle of Gettysburg. Kansas: U.S. Army Command & General Staff College.

 

• Herihly, Edward G. (1931). Study of the Union Artillery at the Battle of Gettysburg, 1-3 July 1863. Ft. Leavenworth: The Command and General Staff School.

 

• Irick III, Edward F. (1991). Artillery Terrain Walk Gettysburg Battlefield. PA: U.S. Army War College.

 

• Lee, William E. (1930). Was the Confederate Artillery Effective at Gettysburg?. Ft. Leavenworth: The Command and General Staff School.

 

Online Sources

 

American Civil War History [www.factasy.com]

 

The Battle of Gettysburg [www.civilwarhome.com]

 

Printed Sources

 

• Brown, Kent Masterson. (1993). Cushing of Gettysburg: The Story of a Union Artillery Commander. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

E475.53 .B85 1993

 

• Coco, Gregory A. (1998). A Concise Guide to the Artillery at Gettysburg. PA: Thomas Publications.

E475.53 .C622

 

• Cole, Philip M. (2002). Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg: Organization, Equipment, Ammunition and Tactics. Cambridge: Da Capo Press.

E475.53 .C65 2002

 

• Downey, Fairfax Davis. (1958). The Guns at Gettysburg. NY: D. McKay.

E475.53 .D75

 

• Gottfried, Bradley M. (2008). The Artillery of Gettysburg. Nashville: Cumberland House.

E475.53 .G66 2008

 

• Newton, George W. (2005). Silent Sentinels: A Reference Guide to the Artillery at Gettysburg. NY: Savas Beatie.

E475.56 .N6 2005

 

• Sears, Stephen W. (2003). Gettysburg. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

E475.53 .S43 2003

 

• Spruill, Matt. (2010). Summer Thunder: A Battlefield Guide to the Artillery at Gettysburg. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

E475.53 .S77 2010

 

• Woodworth, Steven E. (2008). Beneath a Northern Sky: A Short History of the Gettysburg Campaign. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

E475.51 .W66 2008

 

Chickamauga

Articles

 

• Govekar, Christopher P. (1995). Fire Support at the Battle of Chickamauga. Field Artillery Journal, 42-44.

 

Student Papers

 

• Foley, Kyle J. (2003). John Bell Hood's Division in the Battle of Chickamauga: A Historical Analysis. Kansas: U.S. Army Command & General Staff College.

 

• Mammay, Michael J. (2001). Union Artillery at the Battle of Chickamauga. Kansas: U.S. Army Command & General Staff College.

 

Online Sources

 

Battle of Chickamauga - Part 1 [militaryhistoryonline.com]

 

The Chickamauga Campaign [www.civilwarhome.com]

 

Printed Sources

 

Cozzens, Peter. (1992). This Terrible Sound: The Battle of Chickamauga. Illinois: University of Illinois Press.

E475.81 .C78 1992

 

• Woodworth, Steven E. (2010). The Chickamauga Campaign. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

E475.81 .C49 2010

 

Spotsylvania

Articles

 

• Whatley, John C. (1985). Artillery Well Handled. Field Artillery Journal, 53, 3, 52-53.

 

Online Sources

 

The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House [www.civilwarhome.com]

 

Printed Sources

 

• Gallagher, Gary W. (1998). The Spotsylvania Campaign. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

E476.52 .S66 1998

 

• Matter, William D. (1988). If It Takes All Summer: The Battle of Spotsylvania. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

E476.52 .M38 1988